Systematic literature search on health promotion strategies for adults with intellectual disabilities / by Krista Mills.
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Intellectual disability (ID) is not a disease itself, rather it is a condition that is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptation in conceptual and practical skills (van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk & Walsh, 2008); though engaging in community living and social skills can also be affected (Fisher, 2004). Examples of adaptation skills include communication, self-care, and self-direction. Diagnosing the presence of ID is usually conducted by a psychologist using established criteria including having an intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 70 or below, with an onset of the condition before the age of 18 (APA, 1994). There are a number of terms that have been used by healthcare professionals to define intellectual disability. The term “mental retardation”, though still used within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), is currently considered unacceptable by most (World Health Organization, 2001), The term intellectual disability (ID) is generally preferred, and will be used in this paper,