Competitive and recreational youth sport structures and gender : a study of goal orientation, intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy
MacDonald, Keltie Jean
Master of Science
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The purpose of this study was to examine youth sport participant’s achievement goal orientation, Intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy In relation to their gender and the sport structure they participate in, competitive or recreational. Situational factors that might influence the climate were also measured. Intrinsic motivation was assessed with the intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) while goal orientations were assessed with the Task and Ego Orientation In Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Self-efficacy was assessed with both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structure types were checked using the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ) in order to ascertain the motivational philosophy of the team. Qualitative data was collected from the coaches of each team regarding their motivational style and coaching certification. Questionnaires were administered to 161 boys and girls. Thirty of these participants were Interviewed to gain qualitative data regarding their self-confidence In soccer. A 2 X 2 (gender X structure) factorial ANOVA revealed a significant difference for Intrinsic motivation. The competitive league participants had greater scores of overall Intrinsic motivation, and greater scores In the three IMI subscales for Interest/enjoyment, perceived competence and effort/importance. Paired sample t- tests revealed task orientation to be significantly greater than ego orientation In all participants as well as perceived mastery. The coaches of the competitive structure were all highly qualified, each having obtained Level 3 certification In the National Coaching Certification Program. Contradictory to other studies, this study suggests that athletes in a competitive situation can be more intrinsically motivated than recreational structures. The results suggest that both the recreational and competitive sport structures were perceived as mastery-based. The highly qualified coaches may have contributed to the perception of the competitive league being mastery-based. The present study also found no gender differences in self-efficacy, which does not support past research.