Production of bio-crude from forestry waste by hydro-liquefaction in sub-/super-critical methanol and upgrading of bio-crude by hydro-treating / by Yun Yang.
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"Bio-energy is renewable and clean (with trace amount of sulfur and neutral in terms of CO2 emission), and abundant in resource, thus it could be a securable and sustainable energy for future. Due to the declining reserve of light crude oil, there is increased interest in producing bio-fuels (bio-ethanol, bio-diesel and bio-oils) from biomass resources. Bio-crude, produced from lignocellulosic biomass/wastes by high-pressure direct liquefaction, has been found more advantageous than conventional bio-oil generated by pyrolysis since a bio-crude normally contains a greater heating value than pyrolysis oil. Bio-crude has a potential to be upgraded into high quality fuel oils or transportation fuels by hydro-treatment.