A survey of fungal endophytes from healthy branches of Ginkgo biloba
Honours Bachelor of Environmental Management
DisciplineNatural Resources Management
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Ginkgo biloba L. is known for being highly resistant to bacterial, insect, and fungal infestations and thus ginkgo trees are commonly cultivated and planted in urban landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not fungal endophytes are living within the healthy branches of ginkgo, and if present, do they form a structured recognizable community? Eleven healthy gingko trees were sampled across eleven different localities in Canada from sites that ranged from Nova Scotia to British Columbia. Each tree sampled had 1 to 11 branch samples taken. Each branch sample had four pieces of cambium placed into each petri dish containing agar media. In total there were 183 isolations made. Out of these, 102 fungal colonies arose representing 35 distinct species in 17 genera. In addition, 43 samples did not yield any fungi. Phoma represented the most significant number of fungal isolates at 29 percent, with seven distinct, but unidentified species being recognized. The fungal endophytes identified are considered to be opportunistic and are ubiquitous across many woody plants and trees. The principal genera of fungi identified include Phoma, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Coniothyrium, Epicoccum, and Stigmina. This study shows that diverse communities of fungal endophytes are living in the healthy branches of Ginkgo biloba and that each tree sampled contained a unique assemblage.