Multidimensional measurement of self concept : a preliminary study
Master of Arts
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The purpose of this research was to develop a preliminary multidimensional measurement of self concept, within the framework of phenomenological theory and acknowledging previous work in the field. Twelve preliminary scales were investigated in terms of reliability, validity and cross-validation. Further work was not done to establish normative data, accounting for demographic differences. Self concept was defined as "an organized, fluid, but consistent conceptual pattern of characteristics and relationships of the "I” or the "me", together with values attached to these concepts" (Rogers, 1951, p. 498). Two groups of participants consisting of university and college students at all levels were used. The first group (n = 325) was used for item analysis and cross-validation measures, and the second group (n = 96) for retest reliability and validity measures. The questionnaire used consisted of thirteen scales: five scales represented an internal frame of reference, and seven scales an external frame of reference of the self concept. The last scale was a Lie Scale, or "Faking Good". There were four major sfages to the research: item develofxnent and three psychometric studies; two approaches were used in it&n development; the development of items for the Family Self, Social Self, Religious Self, Occupational Self, Masculine/Feminine, Body Self, Public Self, and Past/Present/Future Scales; and the revision of items for the Lie, Enpathy, Altruism, Self Esteem, and the Purpose In Life Scales, v^ich were modified from already developed tests. Prior to the first administration of the questionnaire, nine judges rated each item of the developed scales for face validity. Inter-judge reliability was not performed on the judges' responses due to the high agreement found between judges. The process of item analysis was completed in Study One. The best 16 items that resulted in the highest item-total correlation within the eight developed scales were retained. The second study established reliability and validity data on the scales after item analysis. Retest reliability on 24 college students over a three month interval was unacceptable for all scales, with the exception of the Masculine/Feminine Self Scale. Overall, coefficient alpha results were poor, with only two scales (Past/Present/Future and Errpathy Scale) meeting the criteria of acceptable hcmbgeneity estimates (n = 96). Convergent and discriminant validation was estimated using the Counselling Fom of the TSCS and 16PF (n = 35). Results of the TSCS revealed that most predictions made, occurred. Only a few predictions were successful vdien the revised questionnaire's scales were correlated with the factors of the 16PF Test. Factor analysis for individual scales revealed ambiguous findings. Study Three, the cross-validation estimates, were found to be more favourable. However, the sample size was small (n = 41). Overall, the studies suggested that there is a firm enough base to warrant further development of this multidimensional self concept scale.