|dc.description.abstract||Interspecific and intraspecific variation of C. longilabris Say
and C. nebraskana Casey were studied by means of discriminant analysis
of morphometric data and univariate analysis of qualitative characters
of adult specimens. The geographic variation of male and female genitalic
structures of C. longilabris and C. nebraskana was studied and
compared with that of the Palearctic species of the sylvatica group:
C. sylvatica Linnaeus, C. granulata Gebler, C. japana Motschulsky,
C. gemmata Faldermann, C. soluta Dejean and C. lacteola Pallas. Soil
associations of the two Nearctic species were investigated.
C. longilabris is a boreal and montane forest species
occurring on Podzolic soils in eastern North America and Luvisolic and
Brunisolic soils of coniferous forests in western North America as well
as in boreal forest-grassland transition areas. Three subspecies are
recognized: c. l. longilabris Say, found across the boreal zone from
Newfoundland and New England to Alaska, C. l. laurentii Schaupp, in the
Rocky mountain areas of the United States, including isolated populations
in northern New Mexico, eastern Arizona, northern Arizona and southwestern Utah, and c. l. perviridis Schaupp, found in the Sierra Nevada
and Cascade Mountains of California, Oregon and Washington. An area of
hybridization occurs in southwestern Alberta, southeastern British
Columbia, eastern Washington, Idaho and northwestern Montana where the
three subspecies converge geographically. C. nebraskana is a monotypic
species which occurs on Chernozemic soils of prairie grasslands and
grassland-forest transition zones of western North America.
The three year life cycle of C. longilabrls is described.
Two winters are passed in the larval stage and one winter in the adult
stage before mating and oviposition occur. The egg stage and first,
second and third stage larvae of c. longilabris are described.
A reconstructed phylogeny is presented in which three species
pairs are evident, C. soluta-C. gemmata, C. sylvatica-C. granulata,
and C. longilabris-C. nebraskana with C. japana being most closely
related to the soluta-gemmata sibling species, and C. lacteola having
been derived earlier in the evolution of the whole group.||