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Arousal imagery effects on competitive state anxiety and performance of the soccer penalty kick

dc.contributor.advisorFarrell, Joey
dc.contributor.authorLight, Matthew Neil
dc.description.abstractStudy participants: 2 soccer teams in Northwestern Ontario (age 13-18 years).
dc.description.abstractSome athletes perceive competitive state anxiety as unhelpful and negative to performance while it energizes and excites others. Perceptions o f anxiety affect motor performance, consequently it is important to develop strategies which are able to modify athletes negative perceptions. Imagery is used as a common intervention for preparing athletes for performance. Its motivational function refers to images related to physiological and emotional arousal. Most imagery research has primarily been implemented for skill development/learning of motor skills, and has not investigated the effects o f motivational arousal imagery on competitive state anxiety. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of an 8 week imagery intervention based on the motivation general arousal element of Paivio’s (1985) analytical framework of imagery effects in: (a) modifying perceptions of anxiety from negative to positive, and (b) improving performance o f the penalty kick. Using a treatment (imagery) and no treatment (no imagery) design, two male and two female representative youth soccer teams (N = 46) completed a modified version o f the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2D) five minutes before taking five penalty kicks. The CSAI-2D assesses both intensity and direction (debilitative-facilitative) of the state anxiety response. Participants (n = 28) who reported debilitative state anxiety as indicated by the CSAI-2D were then allocated to imagery (n = 14) and no imagery (n = 14) groups Debilitative state anxiety was assessed using CSAI-2D directional scores. Individuals who scored less than 36 on cognitive or somatic directional scales were considered debilitative. Following the 8 week intervention participants were again assessed on penalty kick performance. Two-way analysis of variance (Group x Time) with repeated measures on the second factor revealed no significant interactions for cognitive anxiety; somatic anxiety; or self-confidence intensity and direction subscales. Main effects were revealed for cognitive anxiety direction (E(i,27) = 6.68, p < .05) and self-confidence intensity (E(i,27) = 4.54, p < .05). The analysis was unable to demonstrate performance effects arising from imagery or no imagery exposure. This study indicates that using motivational arousal imagery may not be a compatible treatment for restructuring negative interpretations of state anxiety towards taking soccer penalty kicks.
dc.subjectSoccer Psychological aspects
dc.subjectPerformance anxiety
dc.subjectSports Psychological aspects
dc.titleArousal imagery effects on competitive state anxiety and performance of the soccer penalty kick
dc.typeThesis of Science University

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