A review of anthropogenic threats and the decline of at-risk lichen populations in Canada
Lichens are among the most common species in Canada, but their population has declined in recent years. This review focuses on the key factors associated with the decline in lichen species in Canada. The study investigated the anthropogenic threats linked to the deterioration of at-risk lichen species. The study mainly focused on the effect of human factors since they have been established to have a significant role in the decline of lichen species in Canada. Existing studies from Lakehead University Library Database and Google Scholar were used as data sources. The study found that loss of habitat through deforestation and fire is associated with a decline in the lichen population. Also, overexploitation through large-scale logging and wood harvesting, agricultural activities, including clearing forests for land use or farming activities, and urbanization and air pollution from industrial activities are associated with a decline in the number of lichen species in Canada. Lichen conservation measures should be enacted and supported in Canada to reduce human activities and improve the growth and survival of lichens.
- Undergraduate theses